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Anderson, Terry; Rourke, Liam; Garrison, D. Randy; Archer, Walter. (2001). Assessing Teaching Presence in a Computer Conferencing Context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2). Retrieved February 19, 2008, from http://communitiesofinquiry.com/files/Teaching%20Presence.pdf  

The first author, Terry Anderson, a professor of Athabasca University and Canadian Research Chair in Distance Education and other authors from University of Alberta, Canada, present a tool for assessing teaching presence in online courses that make use of computer conferencing.
Although the article reports a positive result on a pilot test using data from two 13-week courses, the value of the article is the elaboration of how the tool was created: the theoretical framework and the rationale for the coding scheme. This paper was a main reference when I conducted a content analysis at EDTEC 650.
This article is one of the series articles for Community of Inquiry. Related articles could be found at Community of Inquiry web site. To understand the evolution of the coding scheme used in this study, readers can refer to Transcript Analysis of Computer-Mediated Conferences as a Tool for Testing Constructivists and Social-Constructivist Learning Theories, a research report co-authored by Anderson, 1998.  

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  Berge, Z. L. (1995). The Role of the Online Instructor/Facilitator. Educational Technology, 35(1), 22-30. Retrieved from http://www.emoderators.com/moderators/teach_
online.html

The author, professor of Education at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, categorizes the online instructor’s responsibility into four areas: pedagogical, social, managerial, and technical. This article describes each area and gives examples for how those responsibilities can be fulfilled thoughtfully. While this article discusses online moderating by examining the role of instructors, Salmon’s research takes different view point when studying the same topic and suggests a five-stage model of teaching and learning online.
When I created the job aids for online teacher in EDTEC 540, I used Berge’s four areas of moderator’s responsibility as the coding scheme for data collection and analysis.        

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Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). The Conditions of Flow. In Flow - The Psychology of Optimal Experience (pp. 71-93). New York: Happer Collins Publishers.

This article, a chapter of the author’s book: Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, explores activities that produce optimal experiences that make people willing to do something for its own sake and help people achieve flow easily. The author, Director of Life Quality Research Center at the Drucker School, discusses the relationships between flow and religion, culture, social condition, and personality. In EDTEC 670, I used ideas gained from this article to design instructional games.

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Dara-Abrams, Benay P. (2002). Applying Multi-Intelligent Adaptive Hypermedia
to Online Learning. Montreal, Canada. Retrieved March 15, 2009, from http://www.brainjolt.com/docs/miol.pdf

This paper examines whether the Theory of Multiple Intelligences can be applied to online learning. The author, professor of College of Professional Studies at University of San Francisco, suggests a prototype system that applies multiple intelligences theory to online learning design. The purpose of the research is to build an adaptive, personalized online learning environment. A demonstrative online learning module is provided on the BrainJolt web site.
This article was one of the literatures I reviewed in EDTEC 561 while conducting a multimedia web site design.

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Fransen, J., & Swager, P. (2007). Blended Learning; Choices and Strategy - Guidelines for effective interaction in learning practices (p. 18). Centre for eLearning, INHOLLAND University for Professional Education. Retrieved October 23, 2008, from http://www.blend-xl.eu/files/FransenJenSwagerPChoicesandStrategy.pdf

This article is a report to the result of a two-year project on blended learning and provides a framework for (re-)design of blended learning. The authors, professors of INHOLLAND University for Professional Education, argue that teachers should make choices and think strategically before actually starting a blended learning. The article elaborates nine principles for designing blended learning. Examples are described and illustrated for each principle.
I referred to this article when I designed online modules for the client as a student instructional designer in ED 795A.

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Gunawardena, C. N., & McIsaac, M. S. (2003). Distance Education. In Jonassen (2nd ed.) D. Handbook of Research on Educational Communication and Technology.  

This article is a chapter of Handbook of Research on Educational Communication and Technology (Jonassen, 2003. Eds.). The authors, professor of Education at the University of New Mexico, trace the history of the distance education, discuss the definitions and theoretical principles, and explore the research in this field based on four data sources: ERIC, doctoral dissertations, conference paper, and four journals.
I read this article in EDTEC 561. The authors’ summary and interpretation was very useful for a novice in distance education to begin to understand the field.

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Hara, N., Bonk, C. J., & Angeli, C. (1998). Content Analysis of Online Discussion in an Applied Educational Psychology. CRLT Technical Report (pp. 115-152). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from http://crlt.indiana.edu/publications/techreport.pdf

The authors, professors at Indiana University, take Henri’s five key dimensions model as an initial framework for coding computer-mediated conference discussions to construct detailed criteria that can be used to examine the dynamics of an online discussion. Except for frequency distributions and measures of central tendency, this research uses interactivity graphs as tools to find the patterns of interaction which emerged during a 12-week course. This paper provides practical help with content analysis techniques for my research conducted in EDTEC 650.

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Holmberg, B., & FernUniversitat, H. (. G. Z. I. F. F. A. (1985). The Feasibility of a Theory of Teaching for Distance Education and a Proposed Theory. ZIFF Papiere 60. (p. 26).

The author proposes his theory of guided didactic conversation and concludes with 5 formulas and 11 hypotheses that can be tested to assess the validity of that theory in this paper. The author introduces his theory through a systematic approach that begins with the definition of theory and the potentials and limitations, and then continues moving to the assumptions and the suggested theory. Holmberg modified the name of his theory to empathic teaching-learning in his article The Conversational Approach to Distance Education published in Open Learning in 1999.

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Malone, T., & Lepper, M. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning (Vol. 3, pp. 253, 223). Erlbaum.  

This article summarizes intrinsic motivations and its applications in the design of the instructional environment. The authors, researcher at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center and professor of Stanford University, claim that intrinsic motivation is a necessary precondition for student involvement in learning activities; therefore, instructors should make learning more interesting and enjoyable. The taxonomy of intrinsic motivations includes four individual motivations: challenge, fantasy, curiosity, and control, and three interpersonal motivations: cooperation, competition, and recognition. I studied this article in EDTEC 670, found it relevant, and utilized it in game design.
The article from Csikszentmihalyi, The Conditions of Flow, can be a supplementary reading to this article.

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Moore, M. G. (1997). The Theory of Transactional Distance. Retrieved April 22, 2008, from http://www.aged.tamu.edu/research/readings/Distance/
1997MooreTransDistance.pdf
 

The author describes the original theory of transactional distance and then made important modifications to some of the diagrams in his previous article once he took the impact of teleconferencing into consideration. He concludes that teleconferencing can reduce distance and increase the autonomy of learners. In EDTEC 650, this article provided me the supplementary information for Moore’s theory presented in The Handbook of Distance Education.

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Peters, O. (1967). Distance Education and Industrial production: A Comparative Interpretation in Outline. monograph, Central Institute for Distance Education Research, Fern University. Retrieved April 26, 2008, from http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/ZIFF/PETERS.HTM#mass%20production  

The author, Professor of Education at Distance Teaching University in Germany, compares distance education with industrialization and claims that these two forms are consistent with the principles and tendencies. He uses structural elements, concepts, and principles derived from the theories of industrial production, such as division of labor, mechanization, assembly line, and mass production, to interpret the distance study phenomena. I read this article in EDTEC 650 as a supplementary reading to the author’s theory. In his recent article, Chapter 5 of the Handbook of Distance Education, the author elaborates his theory in detail.

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Rourke, Liam; Anderson, Terry; Garrison, D. Randy; Archer, Walter. (2001). Methodological Issues in Analysis of Asynchronous, Text-Based Computer Conferencing Transcripts. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 12(1), 8-22. 

Professors from the University of Alberta review how the research team made selection on research methodology and content analysis techniques. They review 14 studies to examine the characteristics of content analysis methodology including objectivity, reliability, and replicability as well as how the studies present the systematic, quantitative, descriptive and inferential quality. This paper also documents the evolution of content analysis techniques as the authors applied the methodology to their research in analyzing transcripts of asynchronous, computer mediated conferencing in formal educational settings. The techniques include how to identify variables and indicators; and how to define the unit of analysis. I used this paper as one of the main references for content analysis techniques during EDTEC 650.

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Saba, F.; Shearer, R. L., F. (1994). Verifying Key Theoretical Concepts in a Dynamic Model of Distance Education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(1). Retrieved February 19, 2008, from http://edweb.sdsu.edu/Courses/ET650_OnLine/saba_
shearer1994.htm
 

The first author, professor of Educational Technology at San Diego State University, uses the empirical research method to verify the concepts of transactional distance, structure, and dialogue. To conduct this research, the author adopts computer software, STELLA, to illustrate and analyze the system dynamics between instructor control, learner control, and transactional distance. Discourse analysis is used as the techniques for coding speech acts occur in online courses. The coding scheme is derived from Flanders’ Interaction Analysis System with several additional categories regarding electronic communication means and instructional design. Readers should also read Postmodern Theory of Distance Education written by the first author to obtain a more complete picture of the methodology used.
During EDTEC 650, this paper provided a step-by-step example for the system dynamics approach.

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Tungare, M., Yu, X., Cameron, W., Teng, G., Pérez-Quiñones, M. A., Cassel, L., et al. (2007). Towards a syllabus repository for computer science courses. SIGCSE Bull., 39(1), 55-59.

The authors, researchers at Virginia Tech and Villanova University, report their study towards creating a syllabus repository. This article describes how they create the collection of syllabi mainly through Internet search, how they filter out unrelated materials from collection by building an automatic classifier, and the tools they create for comparing and making syllabi. I learned useful techniques for collecting syllabi from this article in ED 690. The idea about “syllabus as a collection of meta-data for a course” sounds interesting to me and I would like to trace the progress of the syllabus repository system in the future.

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Waterhouse, S., & Rogers, R. (2004). The Importance of Policies in E-Learning Instruction . EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 27(3), 28-39. Retrieved February 21, 2009, from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eqm0433.pdf

The authors, professor of Educational Technology and Aeronautical Science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, argued that in the learning environment, students should have a clear understanding of what the instructor expects from them, as well as what they can expect from the instructor. The article lists nine categories of course policies that the authors suggest instructors to post on their course web sites when teaching online. The authors elaborate essential notices and provide example forms for various policies.  During ED 690, I conducted a research on syllabi. This article provided some of the criteria for constructing my coding scheme.

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